"Curiouser and curiouser!"
—Lewis Carroll

Symmetry and Pattern Design Resources


Teaching or studying symmetry? Learning pattern design? Looking for pattern ideas?
These tips , interactive tutorials , glossary definitions , SymmetryMill help items ,
and books  offer help:

Illustrations created with Artlandia SymmetryWorks and Artlandia LivePresets in Adobe Illustrator,
Artlandia SymmetryShop in Adobe Photoshop, and Artlandia SymmetryMill.

Types of symmetry

Symmetry of Patterns

Examples of the seventeen symmetry types (wallpaper groups).
More examples of the seventeen symmetry types (open in Artlandia 6SymmetryMill).
Basic Symmetry Operations. Symmetry lingo for designers. (PDF, 232 KB)
Figuring out the Type of Symmetry. Step-by-step instructions. (PDF, 320 KB)
Creating linear ornaments and borders.
Symmetric rotational designs with Artlandia SymmetryWorks.
Stained glass pattern Stained glass mandala with Artlandia SymmetryWorks.
Gruenbaum, Branko and G.C. Shephard. Tilings and Patterns. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman, 1987.
Comprehensive and rigorous mathematical treatment, with excellent, inspiring illustrations.
Bix, Robert. Topics in Geometry. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1997.
A junior-level college geometry course with a chapter on transformation geometry and wallpaper groups.
McLenaghan, Ray and Silvio Levy. Geometry, in CRC Standard Mathematical Tables and Formulae. D. Zwillinger (ed.), Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1996.
Concise introduction to wallpaper groups. Definition and classification of the groups.
Rotational design Washburn, Dorothy K. and Donald W. Crowe. Symmetries of Culture: Theory and Practice of Plane Pattern Analysis. Seattle, WA and London: University of Washington Press, 1988.
An excellent introduction to mathematical principles and terminology of symmetry and pattern analysis for non-mathematicians. Classification of one- and two-dimensional patterns for "one-color" and "two-color" models. Illustrated with a vast collection of historic patterns, with an emphasis on the anthropological analysis.
The two-color symmetries of counterchange patterns, a tutorial for the mathematically inclined. (PDF, 1.1 MB)
Conway, John Horton, Heidi Burgiel, and Chaim Goodman-Strauss. The Symmetries of Things. Wellesley, MA: A K Peters, 2008.
The less mathematical first part introduces the notions of symmetry, kaleidoscopes, gyrations, rosette and frieze patterns, and patterns repeating on the plane and sphere. Describes a method for classifying patterns based on the pattern's signature.
McDowell, Ruth B. Symmetry. A Design System for Quiltmakers. Lafayette, CA: C & T Publishing, 1994.
The seventeen symmetries of a plane described and illustrated with a large number of traditional and original quilt patterns: plain block repeats, pinwheel patterns, mirror blocks, staggered mirror pairs and group-of-four blocks, quilts based on the glide symmetries, diamond, triangle, and kite-shaped block quilts.
Creating tessellations

Tessellations

Creating tessellations.
Creating Tessellations. Interlocking patterns and tessellations, the easy way. (PDF, 230 KB)
Tessellations.
M. C. Escher, His Life and Complete Graphics Work. J.L. Locher (ed.), New York, NY: Abradale Press, Harry N. Abrams, 1982.
M.C. Escher's biography with a catalog of his graphic work. 600 illustrations, including the famous tessellations.
Beyer, Jinny. Designing Tessellations: The Secrets of Interlocking Patterns. Chicago, IL: Contemporary Books, 1999.
Introduces interlocking patterns, and specifically M.C. Escher's designs, from a quilter's perspective. Gives a layman's description of symmetry types (planar symmetry groups). Contains many original quilts.
Seymour, Dale and Jill Britton. Introduction to Tessellations. Palo Alto, CA: Dale Seymour Publications, 1989.
High-school level introduction to tessellating polygons and creating Escher-like tessellations.


 

Egyptian 7th Century BC pattern (lotus)

Blending units of repetition
Basketweave pattern
Creating wallpaper patterns

Patterns and ornaments

Creating repeat patterns with Artlandia SymmetryWorks.
Creating patterns with Artlandia SymmetryMill (video, 5 mins).
Creating geometric patterns and geometric designs with Artlandia SymmetryWorks.
Interactive editing of geometric patterns with Artlandia SymmetryWorks.
Pattern design terms.
Creating seamless patterns by blending repeating units (with Artlandia SymmetryMill).
Creating basketweave patterns with Artlandia SymmetryMill.
Re-creating historical patterns.
Reproducing Historic Patterns: Egyptian 7th Century BC Design. Explains how to create interlocking spirals in Egyptian and Celtic patterns. (PDF, 456 KB)
Stevens, Peter S. Handbook of Regular Patterns. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1981.
An excellent introduction to symmetry and patterns. Hundreds of historic patterns from all over the world, classified by symmetry type.
Jones, Owen. The Grammar of Ornament: Illustrated by Examples from Various Styles of Ornament. New York, NY: Barnes and Noble Books, 1997.
A reprint of a 1856 edition of the classic encyclopedia. More than two thousand ornaments, classified by the country of origin and period. Egyptian, Assyrian, Persian, Greek, Pompeian, Roman, Byzantine, Arabian, Turkish, Persian, Indian, Hindu, Chinese, Celtic, Medieval, Renaissance, Elizabethan, and Italian ornaments and patterns.
Christie, Archibald H. Pattern Design: An Introduction to the Study of Formal Ornament. New York, NY: Dover, 1969.
A republication of the 1910 book. Evolution of patterns and ornaments, with over three hundred illustrations. Stripe, spiral, interlacing band-work, branching stem-work, chevron, paisley, tartan, zigzag, knot-work, labyrinth, fleur-de-lys, guilloche, chequers, heraldic, floral, foliated, palmette, and pseudo-naturalistic patterns. Historic Greek, Egyptian, Roman, Assyrian, Arabic, French, Italian, Spanish, English, Turkish, Persian, and Indian designs.
Day, Lewis F. Pattern Design. Mineola, NY: Dover, 1999.
A republication of the 2nd edition (1933). A practical introduction to pattern design. Patterns based on the square, triangle, octagon, and circle, and their evolution. Border design, frieze patterns, and corners. Turnover, drop, turn-round, and spot repeats.
Fenn, Amor. Abstract Design and How to Create It. New York, NY: Dover, 1993.
A republication of "Abstract Design: A Practical Manual on the Making of Patterns for the Use of Students, Teachers, Designers and Craftsmen" published in 1930. Design of borders (the fret ornament, curved, straight, and undulating lines) and textile patterns (geometric basis, rectangular and diamond plans (layouts), the drop and diamond patterns, lattice or trellis patterns, moresque, counter-change, octagon- and hexagon-based patterns, Arabian, Persian and Sicilian patterns, the net and scale patterns).
Phillips, Peter and Gillian Bunce. Repeat Patterns: A Manual for Designers, Artists and Architects. London: Thames and Hudson, 1993.
A nice collection of about a hundred patterns, classified by the type of repeat, with explanations of how each pattern can be constructed. Block repeats, drop repeats, irregular repeats, composite repeats, sateen (spot) repeats, counterchange repeats, and woodblock repeats, are illustrated using examples of French Art Deco, Celtic, North American Indian, Medieval Italian, Persian, and Chinese patterns.
1000 Patterns: Design Through the Centuries. Drusilla Cole (ed.); Alan Bridgewater, Christine Davis, and Iain Zaczek (contributors). San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 2003.
A good source of inspirational classical designs, classified by regions and ethnic origin (Caspian region, knot, China, Colonial North America, India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Japan, Persia, Polynesia, Pre-Columbian America, Sub-Saharan, and North Africa) and periods/art movements (Art Nouveau, Baroque & Rococo, Early 20th Century, Medieval, Renaissance, and 19th century through modern in five periods). Also includes an index by geometric shapes (abstract, acanthus, Adler/eagle motif, Arabesque, arrow/chevron, basketweave, mina-khani, boteh/buta/paisley/teardrop, checkerboard, circle/spot, crescent/sickle, cross, diamond, magic knot, fan, heart shape, hexagon, lattice, rosette, scroll, spiral, star, stripe, tartan), natural shapes (animal, bamboo, bird, flower -- anemone, camellia, cherry, chrysanthemum, clematis, crocus, daffodil, daisy, dandelion, fuchsia, hollyhock, honeysuckle, hyacinth, iris, lily, lotus, marigold, narcissus, nasturtium, papyrus, paulownia, peach blossom, peony, plum, poppy, rose, sunflower, thistle, tulip, wisteria; fruit -- apple, banana, date, fig, gourd, grape/vine, pear, pineapple, pomegranate, raspberry, strawberry; grain, insect, leaf, lightning, marine life/shell, moon, reptile/dragon, snow, sun, tree -- banana, chestnut, maple, oak, palm, pine, sorb-apple, willow; vegetable, water), and mythological and religious symbols (Cherub/Putto, Chinese and Christian symbols, Circle of Life, Deities, Krishna, Mihrab, Qur'an, Senmurv (Winged Dog), Tamar (Talisman), Tree of Life, and Vishnu).
McCallum, Graham Leslie. Pattern Motifs: A Sourcebook. London: Batsford, 2006.
Over 1000 copyright-free pattern motifs of historical and regional origin (Stone Age and Neolithic European, Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Minoan, Mycenaean, Greek, Chinese, Celtic, Barbarian, Byzantine, Romanesque, Gothic, Japanese, and others), including stylized Art Deco motifs.
Proctor, Richard M. Principles of Pattern Design. New York, NY: Dover Publications, 1990.
A small paperback with about two hundreds patterns, classified by the type of network: square, brick, half-drop, diamond, triangle, ogee, hexagon, and scale. Pattern samples are borrowed from macrame, embroidery, mosaic, painting, collage, wrapping paper, and other decorative arts and crafts.
Plaid designs.
Creating check and plaid patterns.
Creating wallpaper designs.
Miller, Judith. The Style Sourcebook: The Definitive Illustrative Directory of Fabrics, Paints, Wallpaper, Tiles, Flooring. New York, NY: Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 1998.
About two thousand patterns, classified by period (Medieval to late 20th century), origin (fabrics, wallpapers, tiles, flooring), and theme and technique (plains, patterned pile, damask, brocade, tapestry, motifs, floral, pictorial, overall, geometric).
Creating Celtic patterns
Creating Celtic patterns.
Sturrock, Sheila. Celtic Spirals and Other Designs. Lewes, UK: Guild of Master Craftsman Publications, 2000.
Several dozen patterns with explanations and schemes. Spiral, all-over, pelta, fret, maze, key patterns, interwoven motifs and borders.
Authentic Indian Designs: 2500 Illustrations from Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Maria Naylor (ed.). New York, NY: Dover Publications, 1975.
Designs categorized by period. Abstract, geometric, floral, and other patterns, including birds, animals, and shamans.
Abas, Syed Jan, and Amer Shaker Salman, with forewords by Ahmed Moustafa and Sir Michael Atiyah. Symmetries of Islamic Geometrical Patterns. Singapore: World Scientific, 1995.
An excellent collection of about 250 Islamic patterns classified by symmetry types.
Simakoff, N. Islamic Designs in Color. New York, NY: Dover, 1993.
A reproduction of the 1883 publication. Historic patterns from Bukhara, Tashkent, Samarkand and other regions in Central Asia.
Justema, William. The Pleasures of Pattern. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1982.
An interplay between art and design with overview of pattern design, examples of guilloche borders, development of the lotus pattern, historic animal patterns, geometric and figurative patterns, spirals in the motifs from Crete, Mycenae, and Greece, Chinese lattice, Persian rugs, Arabesque, pomegranate patterns, Italian and Gothic patterns, damask, orientalism, naturalism, Japanese kimonos, Art Nouveau, and lessons on line, shape, texture, and color.
Op Art
Creating Optical Art

Optical patterns and Op Art

Creating Optical Art.
Creating optical Illusions.
Creating moire patterns.
Creating illusions of movement, vibration, pulsation, flicker, moiré, 3D, and other effects with Artlandia SymmetryWorks.
Royalty-free optical designs in the Artlandia Collection.
Optical Art.
Horemis, Spyros. 500 Geometric Designs. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc., 1970. A reprint of the edition first published under the title "Optical and Geometrical Patterns and Designs."
Parola, Rene. Optical Art: Theory and Practice. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc., 1969. An excellent introduction to Op Art by one of the originators of the movement. Perception of the image, the role of symmetry, illusions, progressions, patterns, and color in Op Art.
Houston, Joe. Optic Nerve: Perceptual Art of the 1960s. London, New York, NY: Columbus Museum of Art|Merrell, 2007. A comprehensive survey of Op Art published to accompany a major museum exhibition. Features 250 works by Joseph Albers, Bridget Riley, Julio Le Parc, Francois Morellet, Victor Vaserely, and many others. Reproductions of the original art and op motifs applied to great many garments, fashion accessories, furnishings, and interior design items. Op culture. Examples of black and white, monochrome, and full spectrum optical art. Perception and the foundations of Op, particularly from the historic perspective. Includes manifestos and biographies of the artists.
Ouchi, Hajime. Japanese Optical and Geometrical Art. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc., 1977. Over 700 circular, square, and character/number-based motifs representing motion, fluidity, stability, radiation and other optical effects.
Seckel, Al. Masters of Deception. Escher, Dali & the Artists of Optical Illusion. New York, NY: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., 2004. An anthology of optical illusions in the art of Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Salvador Dali, Sandro Del Prete, Jos De Mey, M.C. Escher, Shigeo Fukuda, Ron Gonsalves, Mathieu Hamaekers, Scott Kim, Akiyoshi Kitaoka, Ken Knowlton, Guido Moretti, Vik Muniz, Reginald Neil, Octavio Ocampo, Istvan Orosz, John Pugh, Oscar Reutersvard, Roger Shepard, Dick Termes, Rex Whistler, and other artists. Covers a variety of illusions from composite portraits made from fruits or manmade objects to tessellating and morphing figures to impossible objects. Includes examples of geometric optical patterns and pattern-based optical illusions.
Creating stencil designs

Stencil patterns

Creating stencil designs.
Traditional Japanese Stencil Designs. Clarence Hornung (ed.). New York, NY: Dover Publications, 1985.
An inspiring collection of 276 abstract, geometric, floral, foliate, and other patterns.
Certificate borders

Certificate designs

Guilloche patterns, certificate designs and secure printing with Artlandia SymmetryWorks.
Royalty-free certificate borders and background patterns in the Artlandia Collection.

Textile design

Floral patterns Textile Design. Built-in layouts for textile design in Artlandia SymmetryWorks.
Creating half-drop and brick repeats. Detailed instructions for making the half-drop and brick patterns in Illustrator with Artlandia SymmetryWorks. (PDF file, 172 KB)
Creating drop repeats. Detailed instructions for making half-drop repeats and other fractional drop repeats in Photoshop with Artlandia SymmetryShop. (PDF file, 2.7 MB)
Creating half-drop and brick repeats in Artlandia SymmetryMill (video, 2.5 min).
Creating half-drop patterns with Artlandia SymmetryMill.
Creating allover patterns with Artlandia SymmetryMill.
Creating ikat patterns with Artlandia SymmetryWorks.
Creating floral designs. Quickly create an all-over design from a small scanned image with Artlandia SymmetryWorks. (PDF file, 850 KB)
Floral designs. Royalty-free floral designs supplied with Artlandia SymmetryShop.
Royalty-free geometric designs in the Artlandia Collection.
Textile design terms.
Fisher, Richard and Dorothy Wolfthal. Textile Print Design: A How-To-Do-It Book of Surface Design (F.I.T. Collection). New York, NY: Fairchild Publications, 1987.
A good introduction to designing for the textile industry, with emphasis on the traditional techniques and a chapter on elements of textile design. Color; croquis (sketch); motifs; directional (one-way, two-way, and four-way) and undirectional (tossed) layouts; the set, random, stripe, and plaid layouts; borders and engineered designs; examples of floral, conversational (juvenile, adult, home fashion), and traditional (foulards, paisleys, calico prints, liberty prints, lingerie florals, "little nothings", and documentary) designs; textures and weaves (organic, artificial effects, and graphic); and abstract and geometric designs.
Allover pattern from van Gogh
Textile design
Jerstorp, Karin and Eva Kohlmark. The Textile Design Book: Understanding and Creating Patterns Using Texture Shape and Color. Asheville, NC: Lark Books, 1988.
Examples of creating patterns for textiles, rugs, quilts, embroidery, and weaving. Sketching and simplifying motifs, creating borders and surface designs, stripes, squares, checks, plaids, diagonals, zigzags, lettering, optical illusions, and transparency. Color studies with excellent examples and recommendations.
Meller, Susan and Joost Elffers. Textile Designs: Two Hundred Years of European and American Patterns for Printed Fabrics Organized by Motif, Style, Color, Layout, and Period. New York, NY: Henry N. Abrams, 1991.
An invaluable source of patterns (1,823 illustrations), categorized by theme (floral, geometric, conversational, ethnic, art movement, and period).
Brackman, Barbara. America's Printed Fabrics 1770-1890: 8 Reproduction Quilt Projects: Historic Notes and Photographs: Dating Your Quilts. Lafayette, CA: C&T Publishing, 2004.
Of particular interest are dozens of photo illustrations (and technological and fashion insights) of arranged side-by-side vintage and reproduction fabrics, including woodblock prints, botanical chintzes, blotch grounds, toiles, copper-plate prints, acanthus leaves, madders, fancy machine grounds, picotage, squiggles (vermiculars), stripe sets and stripe grounds, serpentine stripes, eccentrics, Prussian blues, ombres, Turkey reds, French Provincial prints, foulards, printed plaids, paisleys, shirting prints, small-scale geometrics, and conversation prints (conversationals).
Jackson, Lesley. Twentieth-Century Pattern Design: Textile & Wallpaper Pioneers. New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press, 2002.
An excellently illustrated overview organized by decades, trends, movements, countries, and groups/artists. Hundreds of inspirational examples of Art Nouveau and Jugendstil, Proto-Modernism, Modernism, and Moderne, Functionalism and Industrial Art, "Contemporary" design, Op and Pop Art, Ruralism, Revivalism and Giganticism, Post-Modernism, Document and Digital Design. Hundreds of photos of screen-printed, block-printed, roller-printed, photo-printed, and surface-printed fabrics (silk, cotton, linen, rayon, and velvet) and wallpapers.
Ikoku, Ngozi. The Victoria & Albert Museum's Textile Collection: British Textile Design From 1940 to the Present. London: V & A Publications, 1999.
A collection of 150 textile designs, including artist-designed and hand-crafted. Covers the use of geometric and abstract patterning, Pop Art and historical floral influences, and Post-Modernism.
Hardy, Alain-Rene. Art Deco Textiles: The French Designers. London: Thames and Hudson, 2003.
A retrospective of French Art Deco textiles in the first part of the 20th century. Hundreds of photographs of floral and geometric Art Deco, many previously unpublished.
McNamara, Andrea and Patrick Snelling. Design and Practice for Printed Textiles. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Chapters on computer-aided textile design and patterns: overview of the design process from croquis to repeat systems and complete layouts. Design styles: floral, geometrics, conversational, novelty, and toile. Repeat systems: full drop, half drop, brick, stripe, spot repeats, diamond, allover, tossed, ogee, scale, mirror, and turn-over. Exercises on working out the repeat system and putting a design into repeat.
Yates, Marypaul. Textiles: A handbook for Designers. New York, NY, London: W.W. Norton and Company, 1996.
Includes chapters on design for printed and woven fabrics with examples of motifs and styles (floral, chintz, botanical, Jacobean, Provencal, chinoiserie, toile de jouy, conversational, figurative, geometric, contemporary, transitional, trompe l'oeil, chine, kasuri, ikat, shibori, and documentary), layouts (tossed, all-over, meander, set or tailored, foulard, bouquet, ogee, Bayadere, border, engineered, one-way, two-way, and multidirectional), and repeat techniques (half-drop, straight, block, five-star).
Wilson, Jacquie. Handbook of Textile Design: Principles, Processes, and Practice. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2000.
An overview of the textile design process at the level suitable for students. Introduces textile design principles (lines, shapes, form, space, color, tone, and texture) and basic repeat structures (straight repeat, half-drop, tile (brick) repeat, repeat mirrored vertically and horizontally, and centering), among other topics. Suggests several schemes for classifying printed textile designs: by motif or subject matter (florals--realistic (botanical) or stylized, chintz, William Morris/Arts and Crafts movement, symmetry-based, small-scale, simple florals/Provencal; pictorial and figurative designs--"toiles de Jouy", designs depicting vegetables, kitchen utensils, etc.; paisleys, geometrics, abstracts, and ethnic), style, pattern arrangement or layout (tossed, all-over, foulards, ogees, stripes, borders, and engineered designs), and pattern directions (directional--one-way, two-way, etc., and non-directional).

Camouflage (Disruptive patterns)

Camouflage patterns Creating camouflage patterns in Illustrator.
Royalty-free camouflage patterns in the Artlandia Collection.
Camouflage Patterns: Vector. A mini-tutorial of creating camouflage patterns in Illustrator with Artlandia SymmetryWorks. (PDF, 1.1 MB)
Camouflage Patterns: Raster. A mini-tutorial of creating camouflage patterns in Photoshop. (PDF, 3.2 MB)
Blechman, Hardy. Disruptive Pattern Material: An Encyclopedia of Camouflage. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books, 2004.
An exhaustive and superbly illustrated manual for camouflage designers that covers the history of camouflage and contains more than 5000 pictures of military, nature, art, architecture, and fashion use of camouflage patterns. The military use is illustrated in different environments (urban, jungle, desert, and snow) with collections of military uniforms, hats, and shoes. The use in fashion covers clothing, footwear, hats, bags, accessories, and home fashion. Examples of camouflage patterns include Advantage, Amoeba, Amoeba Desert, Animal, ASAT, ASAT Hunting, Aura, Auscam, Autumn Raindrop, Bamboo Leaf, Bear Tiger, Beckham, Bonsai Cloud, Bonsai Cloud Forest, Bonsai Forest, Brushstroke, Bubble, Buffalo, Cactus, Camo City, Cannaflage, Cloud, Combat, Crocodile, Daguet, Deer Hunter, Desert, Six-color Desert, Digital, Dot, DPM , DPMHI Dizzle, Duck, Duck Hunter, Duckhunter Ape, Elm Leaf, ERDL, Fang, Fleck, Frog-Skin, G-camo, Giraffe, Gorilla, Grey Lizard, Hardwood Blaze, Horn, Jigsaw, Leopard, Line, Lizard, Vertical Lizard, Lozenge, Mahapat, MARPAT, Marsh, Mhi, Milo, MOUT, Oak Leaf, Palm, Panther, Patch, Pea, Plane Tree, Rain, RECAMO, Rice, Schofield, Scribble, Shaolin, Snake, Snakeskin, Snowdrift, Splinter, Sun-ray, Superflage, Swedish Trial, Tigerstripe, Vertical Tigerstripe, Warsawpict, WoodChip, Woodland, Woodland Terrain, and Zebra-stripe patterns.

Patterns and fashion

Live garment rendering Garment rendering with Artlandia LivePresets.
Interactive rendering with SymmetryWorks LP.
Stecker, Pamela. The Fashion Design Manual. Melbourne, Australia: Macmillan Education, 2009.
The use of patterns in designing for fashion (as a part of a fashion design course). Contains a quick historic overview, starting from Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Minoans, Greece, Rome, Byzantium, and Middle Ages, through the Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, Neo-Classicism, the Industrial Revolution, and to the 20th Century, including the biographies and styles of Charles Frederic Worth, Paul Poiret, Madeleine Vionnet, Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel, Elsa Schiaparelli, Edward Molyneux, Christian Dior, Cristobal Balenciaga, Pierre Cardin, Andre Courreges, Mary Quant, Bill Blass, Yves Saint Laurent, Oscar De La Renta, Ralph Lauren, Issey Miyake, Giorgio Armani, Karl Otto Lagerfeld, Donna Karan, and Jean-Paul Gaultier. The view of patterns through the eyes of a fashion designer includes a simple classification (geometrics, dots and spots, abstract, naturalistic, and conversational patterns), fashion considerations for designing apparel with patterns and textures (matching patterns, the repeat, the pattern scale, one-way and two-way patterns, pattern placement, and directional effects), and a brief fabric glossary that includes definitions for checks and plaids (End-on-End shirting, Gingham, hound's tooth, Madras, Tartan, and windowpane check), florals (naturalistic and stylized), weaves, prints, laces, non-wovens, and others.

Engineered designs

Engineered designs Creating engineered designs in Illustrator.
Using symbols to create engineered designs with Artlandia SymmetryWorks.
Creating bands, scarves, kerchiefs, handkerchiefs, bandannas, carpets, rugs, and tablecloths with Artlandia SymmetryWorks.
Milanesi, Enza. The Bulfinch Guide to Carpets: How to Identify, Classify, and Evaluate Antique Carpets and Rugs. Boston, New York, Toronto, and London: Bulfinch Press, 1992.
Over 350 illustrations of carpet patterns and convenient schematic diagrams of directional, nondirectional, and centralized carpets and their parts, including central medallions, cartouches, pendants, cornerpieces/spandrels, field motifs, inner and outer guards, and fringes. Covers the origins and classification of carpets, including historical and stylistic developments in Anatolia, persia, the Caucasus, Turkestan, India, China, and Europe.
Sakhai, Essie. Oriental Carpets: A Buyer's Guide. Wakefield, RI and London: Moyer Bell, 1995.
Illustrations, historic references, and schematics of Herati, gol, boteh, palmette, mihrab, the tree of life, the vase of immortality, and other carpet motifs.

Other applied pattern design

Creating linoleum patterns Creating vinyl and linoleum designs.
Powell, Jane; with photographs by Linda Svendsen. Linoleum. Layton, UT: Gibbs Smith, 2003.
A good collection of vinyl patterns with imitations of tile, stone, wood, brick, Jaspe, straw, florals, carpets/rugs, checkerboards, and other traditional and new linoleum designs.
Sentance, Bryan. Ceramics: A World Guide to Traditional Techniques. London: Thames & Hudson, 2004.
A survey of traditional ceramics with an excellent illustrations of applied decorative patterns. Covers raw materials, forming techniques, pre-fired decoration, applique, incising, carving, intaglio, piercing, impressing, sgraffito, roulette, burnishing, firing, raku, glazes, marbling, paint, enamel, oil, gilding, and other decoration techniques for pottery, tablewares, plates, tiles, zellij, mosaics, roofs, sculptures, toys, tobacco pipes, beads, music instruments, ceremonial and other items made from clay, porcelain, bone china, kaolin, and other materials.
Atkin, Jacqui. Pottery Basics: Everything You Need to Know to Start Making Beautiful Ceramics. London: Quarto, Inc. 2005.
A course on pottery making. Contains techniques and illustrations of decorating surfaces with textures, glaze, marbling, combing, inlay, majolica, and others.

SymmetryWorks
SymmetryShop
SymmetryShop
SymmetryMill SymmetryMill

This is an open resource. Contributions are welcome. Submit information about your favorite books and new SymmetryWorks, SymmetryShop, or SymmetryMill tutorials to Artlandia webmaster.